I came to Bristol from Newport in South Wales in August 1962 when I was 12 years old. I had been brought up there and my family came from the Pontypool area. I had once been to Bristol Zoo on a school trip and spent a family holiday in a small caravan at Portishead, both times coming by trail under the Severn. I had also been on a school day trip by steamer from Cardiff Docks to Weston-super-mare when I was about 10. My family moved to Bristol because he had become a Methodist minister, getting out of the coal mining of generations. The “Tanners” had actually come from the declining Bristol coalfield in the early 1800s to find work in South Wales, marrying into local Welsh families. I lived in Bristol until 1968 when I went to university in Nottingham, and, as my parents also moved to Scotland at the same time, I have rarely returned.
我讨厌了布里斯托金博宝亚洲体育尔一段时间，失踪的朋友，看到一个大城市的小吸引力，而不是像纽波特这样的小城镇的熟悉世界。在我的新学校，Cotham Grammar学校，我的第一天没有帮助我在短裤。毕竟，纽波特没有人穿着长裤到学校到第三年。当然，在复杂的布里斯托尔，我是唯一一个。金博宝亚洲体育惭愧和羞辱，我没有做好开端。最重要的是，我记得在当地商店的谈话作为两个女人在我面前的队列中，讨论了所提出的Severn桥梁的缺点。金博宝亚洲体育“所有那些威尔士都要过来，填补我们所有的商店，”一个人说。然后另一个重量阳性;“......但我们可以越过，看到那个漂亮的Tinter ...... n chapel。”我闭嘴闭嘴，开始努力改变我的口音。 I even became a supporter of Bristol Rovers, going regularly to their home games.
I lived off Coldharbour Road on the edge of Redland in a “church house”, cold but spacious. Opposite was a C of E church which I remember for the arrival on Sunday mornings of an old 1940s Rolls Royce driven by a uniformed chauffeur. It was Carey’s Grant’s mum. He was a native of Bristol, living now in Hollywood and this was his treat for his elderly mother who lived about two streets away in a normal semi. That was as close as I got to show biz.
I got in the habit of walking for hours across the Downs, going over to Clifton Gorge and the Bridge. I never went to the Zoo but did stop to listen to the speakers at Speakers’ Corner on the Downs near the top of Black Boy Hill. Increasingly this became the destination as I found that I agreed with the speakers from the Communist Party and C.N.D. On several occasions I remember arriving at Speakers Corner to find a burnt-out bus shelter. I was told that fascists had attempted to speak, and it had turned violent. Thinking about it now I am uncertain how this led to the burning of the bus shelter, but it conjured up interesting possibilities.
Our next door neighbour, an adult, was a keen member of C.N.D. and my elder brother, four years older than me, became involved in some events. I remember him getting up early to join a vigil at Bristol Prison in Horfield to protest at the hanging of a prisoner. It was felt that I was too young to go along.
但是，我的政治观点是通过生活在一个谈判政治的家庭中形成的更深刻。我的父亲是一个强大的劳动力支持者，成立于20世纪20年代和20世纪30年代南威尔士州。我和关于矿工的示威活动和罢工的故事长大。我的大爸爸说，丘吉尔在Tonypandy下令拍摄矿工。由于南威尔士州的“美联储”，南威尔士矿工联盟授予他，我父亲只能参加卡迪夫大学。我的祖母勇敢地去了Jenkins先生当地美联储代理亚瑟詹金斯获得赠款，以弥补日常公共汽车票价，因为她的丈夫是失业的矿工。（这是Roy Jenkins'Dad，虽然没有像Roy一样“困住”变成了。正如他们所说，“他在母亲之后服用”）。课程曾经是语言，是作为他被告知的部长的良好准备，他很幸运地访问德国，特别是因为它被一名必须离开旅行的学生支付。这个学生被告知不要因为他是一个犹太人而且它是1938年。斯威克斯飞行，我父亲知道所有关于达豪的人，并在“练习期间，在慕尼黑和空袭庇护所争论。他的方法论是社会意识的，饮食中的Bonhoeffer和Martin Luther King作为榜样。 By the late 60s he was reading Liberation Theology。我谈到在一个家庭中长大的social inequality, international events and opposing racism. Nigerian students had been lodgers in our house in Newport between 1956 and 1960 and I was very aware of the importance of the fight for independence. Stories of Ceylon from my mother, who was born there in 1916, talks by visiting missionaries and collecting for Christian Aid all opened a window to a wider world that I was to want to explore. I also became a Methodist as many past generations had done and a socially active Christianity was to inform my thinking through my teenage years.
Although I was living in Bristol in 1963, I have no memory of the “bus boycott” though I was very aware of racism in the city. The black community mainly lived in the poor area of St Pauls and in the mid-60s, maybe in 1965 or 1966, there was a change in education policy so that more local children began to attend Cotham Grammar School, including black pupils. I remember comments being made by teachers to us, the older pupils, that “standards are going down” and what I saw as derogatory comments about black children. Yet Cotham was not the “top class” school it claimed. After all it came well behind Bristol Grammar School and Clifton College in the pecking order and was a state school. (Maybe that’s unfair as the school did produce some high-flying scientists in its time.)
当我进入6thform in 1965, at 15, in a sort of fast track group. I remember being told that since a small number of us had not studied Latin we must do a crash course to get “O” level in order to qualify for a university. The Latin teacher was to prepare four of us for the examination. My main memory was that he was a big fan of Enoch Powell, who he regularly quoted, both as a respected Classics scholar and for his reactionary politics. I remember regularly arguing with him about Powell, who I saw as a right-wing bigot and “the enemy”. However, I did scrape through the examination although I found later that it wasn’t needed after all to get into university by 1967.
显然，我的政治已经形成了。我记得学生老师与我的哥哥和他的朋友在课堂外的朋友一起讨论。他们是第六种形式，也许18岁，所以我大约是14岁。我加入了他们的讨论，明确说我不同意学生老师并说出我的想法。学生老师惊呼说，我是“马克思主义者”。我之前没有意识到这一点，但它激励我阅读列宁的旧副本国家和革命from my dad’s bookcase (he disagreed with Lenin) and共产党宣言从我哥哥的集合。都做了许多ense to me. But it was the world events taking place through those years that influenced my political development most profoundly. The civil rights struggle in the U.S.A., events in Apartheid South Africa and Rhodesia, Cuba, the Vietnam War, the Cold War and events behind the Iron Curtain, especially those in Czechoslovakia since my father went there in about 1965 to an international Christian conference and we then hosted several Czech visitors. They were all talked about at home and I absorbed them as I went through those years. Of course, all of this would come together in 1968 as I was about to leave Bristol; the assassination of Martin Luther King and the riots across the U.S.A., the Tet Offensive in Vietnam and the Prague Spring. I strongly remember how I returned to Bristol in the summer of 1968, after travelling alone in Europe and experiencing the May events in Paris first-hand, with my head spinning and finding that my old friends just weren’t interested. It was time to move on.
Bristol did offer a lot as I grew older. There were lots of students, with the University and Redland Teacher Training College just down the road. We rented a room to students from there and they introduced me to different experiences. I remember one who played good music, especially early Bob Dylan, and this affected my musical interests. Another read books like Simone de Beauvoir’s第二个性别。When she was out, I thumbed through it to read the “sexy” bits but found none. However, it made names like Simone de Beauvoir and Jean-Paul Sartre familiar as I grew older so that I looked out for them and read the books with more attention.
Books mattered to me, something I probably inherited from my Pontypool grandfather and dad, who both used to “have their head in a book again”. I was a regular visitor to the library on Whiteladies Road, and the main library next to the Cathedral when I got older. I got most of my reading from libraries although I began to visit book shops, like the one on the top of Park Road to browse if not buy. I remember excitement when I found Jack Kerouac’s在路上并希望在1965年或1966年在我的青年俱乐部告诉大家。俱乐部领导人用无聊的表达看着我。他说，他在20世纪50年代读了它。
我还借了我学校的小锁定书柜的书，充满了历史书籍。非其他人似乎感兴趣，但我发现了像C.V Wedgwood这样的历史学家，并进入了16的细节thand 17th历史。
As for “culture”. I think Bristol was full of it in the ‘60’s but it took a while for a teenager to experience it. I do remember being bowled over by hearing Stravinsky’s “Rites of Spring”, played by a music teacher at Cotham School but otherwise classics were not heard, other than short pieces played by my mother on an old piano, and no visits to the Colston Hall, although my brother went there to see Peggy Lee in 1963.
My “culture” was pop music. We had no record player so my music was radio (“Saturday Club”, Radio Luxemburg, and Steve Race’s “Jazz Record Request”, as my dad listened to it every Saturday as he lay in the bath), and television (“Ready Steady, Go”, Top of the Pops”). I also heard pop at my youth club or on friends’ record players. By 15 and 16, I was going to local dances, usually in church halls or school halls. The music was from local bands or D. J.s playing pop, Rhythm and Blues and Soul, but to be honest, the focus was on the girls who were there. I missed the early appearances of the Stones, the Who and others at the Corn Exchange. I did go a few times but only got to hear second rate bands as I remember. I did go once to Top Rank in Broadmead and saw a brilliant performance by the young Stevie Wonder. By the time I was in the sixth form I was also becoming exposed to other kinds of music, from Otis Reading ( “Otis Lives” was written up in big letters on a school wall after his death in 1967) as well as music my friends were listening to like the Incredible String Band. But like everyone else, or most anyway, a new Beatles L.P. was the biggest event, as we gathered at a friend’s house to hear an LP like “Sergeant Pepper” again and again.
在我介绍雷德兰大学生之后，我进入了第六年的民间音乐，并前往克利夫顿的Troubadour俱乐部听到John Renbourn和Bert Jansch或Local Descles等人。我的朋友Gavin詹姆斯是一个聪明的吉他手，有时会在那里进行。
当我进入第六个形式时，我发现了剧院。在那之前，我去过几个裤子，当我们被教堂里的一位女士带着圣诞节的善待，但现在是“真实”的剧院。我们有免费门票，（或者他们只是便宜的地方？），在18岁的“众神”th世纪大厦的旧维克。坐在天花板上，看到像Brecht的“白种人粉笔圈”，John Arden的“军士摩尔格舞”，由Tyrone Guthri执导的肖名或莎士比亚戏剧戏剧。我最终申请前往诺丁汉大学，部分原因是城市对剧院的良好声誉，与约翰内维尔运行诺丁汉剧院。不幸的是，他在1968年抵达那里的时候已经走了。我从来没有恢复过旧VIC的快感。