从它的出现作为现代世界观无政府主义一直被其追随者和从业人员的行为进行适当判断太纯洁信仰。或者说,它会从似乎一个女孩在无政府主义者,该升降机上煨锅,这是维多利亚无政府主义者现场盖了几部小说之一。首次出版于1903年,内布拉斯加大学认为的本不可多得的好书belle epoch值得在1992年重印的。它被写了业内人士的事实是美德,它除了从其他外用煽情小说是对付无政府主义者,包括完善民间魔鬼dynamitard。在这种情况下,业内人士认为,下写non-de-plume伊莎贝尔梅雷迪思,是海伦和Olivia罗塞蒂,诗人克里斯蒂娜罗塞蒂和艺术家但丁加百列罗塞蒂和表兄弟小说家福特·马多克斯·福特的侄女。更加不可思议,珍妮弗·柚子解释她介绍了现在的版本,是事实,两个姐妹的基础上的故事发布一个无政府主义者期刊其自传的经验,The Torch,而他们还在十几岁的女孩。多远并在半自传体小说的事件是基于第一手的经验,但是,目前还不清楚,甚至令人怀疑。

一个女孩在无政府主义者因此,提供了扩展的(尽管虚构的和主观的)账户中的一些人物,约翰鹌鹑在他的经典帐户维多利亚无政府主义运动的提及The Slow Burning Fuse[1]辉煌的,但古怪的父亲家里,学校和提高他的三个天才儿童适度的舒适性和社会特权,但当时的维多利亚女王时代的社会习俗之外。这些年轻人,萨拉,雷蒙德和伊莎贝尔,是孤立在成年的门槛。他们继承了足够的财富和金钱,使他们能够选择自己的命运。萨拉成为国际歌剧明星,林峰追求在医学界一个成功的职业生涯,而伊莎贝尔遵循早期的野心“对支架或路障死,高呼‘自由,平等,博爱’”(第10)。

伊莎贝尔首先通过阅读克鲁泡特金的呼吁,要求青年变成了激进的青年(如在1891年做了海伦和Olivia罗塞蒂,来知道克鲁泡特金的个人,当他们开始了他们的期刊)和其他无政府主义和社会主义大片。一个哥哥的朋友把她与一些同志接触的那家公司,她迅速使自己不可缺少的生产期刊称为The Bomb and The Tocsin。在配合事件展开,伊莎贝尔完全沉浸在自己她作为一个无政府主义者的宣传作用。她绝对献身“原因”遇到的各种醉鬼,燃烧弹和狂热的流亡者组成无政府主义者网络时,过度乘坐任何初始保留。

一些中国城市劳动力小路是历史上困扰运动是通过无政府主义的几种与之伊莎贝尔变得熟悉的自然史暴露。在这些属中的无政府主义突出的是个人主义lifestylism的不同的信徒,该井到做伊莎贝尔她的安乐窝走出去参加她在“默特尔格罗夫酒馆”第一次会议。爱丽丝般的,她是“步步紧逼”梯子爬上这个声名狼藉的啤酒馆的阁楼,其中进入一个混乱的船员正在生产一种叫做纸新的世界The Bomb。伊莎贝尔的不适是部分原因是侮辱了她的感情类也是因为腐烂的食物,混乱,混乱和缺乏卫生设施似乎是一个没有希望的途径乌托邦。伊莎贝尔进入这个令人沮丧的仙境 - (对英语无政府状态的中心“。41) - 不仅是为了满足一些酗酒者,misogynists和捣乱,从事其个人的战斗对抗世界,大部分现有秩序的更多伤亡比力能够有效地协调革命斗争作出贡献。而非建立对国家,资本和层次的社会运动,无政府主义者距离疏远,甚至打架,更广泛的社会。

雅各布·迈尔斯最好的懒惰,肮脏,小气的性格代表反社会个人主义的该属植物。迈尔斯的行为更加个性化的病理不是政治承诺的一种表现。然而,当他花了他的时间都在睡觉,咆哮而不是原则,洗涤,迈尔斯找到合适的栖息地,并在大多数情况下,无政府主义者场景内的非判断避风港(即使几个犯罪嫌疑人他是个密探)。他首先表现为“模糊的无生命something笼罩在红旗”,导致伊莎贝尔思考‘’是[重点是从我很茫然,决定什么动物王国它的作者]”的部分(第44)。迈尔斯的描述犹太人作为非人性的刻薄意见, along with anti-Semitic references such as ‘fishy and non-descript characters of the Hebraic race’ (p 47), are unsettling for present-day readers given Olivia Rossetti’s later political sympathies and the posthumous irony we recognise due to our knowledge of the fate of Europe’s Jewish people.

An initially more sympathetic and reliable figure, Dr Armitage, also misconstrues anarchism, appearing to think of it as a ‘party’ that eschews organisation and speaks of ‘our war against society’ (p.32).He adopts the causes of rational dress, vegetarianism and teetotalism in keeping with a reformer like Edward Carpenter.Armitage’s enthusiasm for ‘sandals of a peculiar make’ immediately recalls Carpenter, yet the doctor increasingly loses touch with the social dimension and collective project that remained an intrinsic part of Carpenter’s vision, informed by socialism and anarchosyndicalism, of a social revolution.

The next variety of anarchist is represented by the dynamitard and other comrades committed to ‘propaganda by the deed’.Would be assassins and self-sacrificing martyrs indulge in fantasies of power and revenge with the great levelling power of dynamite, futilely attempting to blow up social and economic relationships.In一个女孩在无政府主义者Matthieu and Giacomo Giannoli are based upon notorious historical dynamitards such as Émile Henry and Ravachol.The credo of Giannoli, for example, finally leads him to carry out an atrocity in Barcelona:

要通过一切可能的手段破坏彻底现有的社会结构,通过行为的暴力和恐怖主义,被征用,被破坏道德的普遍观念,打破了那些无政府主义者和社会主义者谁在协会认为的组织,通过谴责这样的人 and such attempts, by preaching revolution wherever and whenever an opportunity occurred or could be improvised, to these objects he had blindly devoted the best years of his life (p.209)。

Despite Isabel’s increasingly critical account, and the clear distance of such an ideology from social anarchism, she supports Giannoli practically and morally without hesitation.It is unclear to what extent the Rossetti sisters’ fiction is informed by personal encounters with dynamitards or insurrectionists or whether accounts of ‘outrage-mongers’ (preface by Morley Roberts, p.xxi) in the well developed genre of Victorian dynamite literature and penny dreadfuls provide the sources for the novel’s later chapters.Isabel increasingly spends her time playing cat and mouse with police detectives and密探as she assists monomaniac and paranoid characters such as Giannoli and the insurrectionist, Kosinski.[2]

Finally, however, following a short period of soul searching and self-scrutiny, Isabel abandoned警钟to free herself of the philosophy of liberation that, ironically, she felt had come to constrain her.Out of the maze of culs-de-sac of this most amazing and scintillating of philosophies, she abandons her passion and commitment, disillusioned with a ‘Cause’ that promised so much and delivered so little.As the novel is a bildungsroman, the一个女孩在无政府主义者is transformed by her youthful excesses experiences and leaves the anarchist movement as the final line states to walk ‘forth into the London Street a sadder if a wiser woman’ (p.302).

In her introduction to the novel, Jennifer Shaddock concludes that Isabel retreated into the home to become a domesticated angel in the house:

一个女孩在无政府主义者具有讽刺意味的设想新女性的年龄在英国未来只给她谴责以永久青春期家(p的家长式意识形态之内。十六)。

I would question that this was necessarily the implication.It is not clear what Isabel’s next stage in life will be when she steps out into the London street.Whatever the sadness of the conservative denouement to these semi-autobiographical revolutionary adventures, an even bleaker coda to the novel should be added if we are to identify the fictional character of Isabel Meredith with her creators.The political journey of the Rossetti sisters did not end there.What Shaddock’s introduction does not tell us is that the reality, at least in the case of Olivia Rossetti, was even more surprising and shocking.She did not retreat into the home after youthful activism co-editing火炬:一个革命杂志国际社会主义。She took a political trajectory that led her from involvement with international organisations such as the League of Nations to support for corporatism that expressed itself in active support for Mussolini’s fascism and co-authorship of a book entitled艺术和职业在法西斯协会的组织状态(1938).Unlike her protagonist, it seems that the sequel to the story for Olivia Rossetti at least, was not wiser but certainly much sadder.

Steve Hunt

1 John Quail, The Slow Burning Fuse: The Lost History of the British Anarchists (London: Paladin, 1978).
2 Such paranoia was well placed.见亚历克斯·巴特沃思,世界从未实现:梦想家,有计划的,无政府主义者一个真实的故事,和特务(2010)。

Notes

  1. [1]约翰鹌鹑,慢烧保险丝:英国无政府主义者失落的历史(伦敦:圣骑士,1978年)。[背部...]
  2. [2]例如偏执良好放置。见亚历克斯·巴特沃思,世界从未实现:梦想家,有计划的,无政府主义者一个真实的故事,和特务(2010)。[背部...]

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